WHITE AUSTRALIA POLICY

White Australia policy | National Museum of Australia
Brass “White Australia” protection badge, 1906; source: National Museum of Australia

White Australia policy, formally known as the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901, effectively stopped all non-European immigration into Australia.

“That end, put in plain and unequivocal terms… means the prohibition of all alien coloured immigration, and more, it means at the earliest time, by reasonable and just means, the deportation or reduction of the number of aliens now in our midst. The two things go hand in hand, and are the necessary complement of a single police – the policy of securing a ‘white Australia.'”

This, alongside other policies discriminating against BIPOC, developed from the racist ideas and criticisms against non-white groups that generally depicted those groups as less advanced than white people in all ways, especially morally and intellectually. This idea primarily aimed at people of Asian descent but applied to all BIPOC, including Indigenous Australians. Ironically, Australia saw itself as a utopia and a working man’s paradise. Thus, they aimed to attract a well-paid, male, white, and skilled labor force to uphold this image. Consequently, BIPOC and even working women were seen as a threat to this ideal and would be paid less.

The Immigration Restrication Act gave immigration officers the power to make any non-European migrant sit a 50 word dictation test. Since the language chosen for the dictation test was chosen by the immigration officer, it was easy to ensure failure for all migrants deemed undesirable. For example, a South Asian that knows English could be given a test in French, German, or, if need be, Lithuanian. The test was administered 1359 times prior to 1909, and only 52 people were granted entry to Australia. After 1909, not one migrant that was forced to take the test passed.

These policies would continue with full fervor until the late 1940s. After the Second World War, Arthur Calwell, the Chifley government’s immigration minister, started to relax the policy to allow refugees to come to Australia. However, the majority of the refugees reflected the White Australia ideal with only limited numbers of migrants from other backgrounds. In the 1970s, the Whitlam government completely eliminated the acts with the introduction of policies like the Racial Discrimination Act of 1975.

RBG

Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg dies of metastatic pancreatic  cancer at 87 - The Boston Globe
Ruth Bader Ginsburg; source The Boston Globe

Fight for the things that you care about, but do it in a way that will lead others to join you.

Ruth Bader Ginsburg (1933-2020); rest in power

Yesterday marks a tragic event as Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg lost her battle to cancer. Ruth Bader Ginsburg was an advocate for gender equality. She was rejected as a Supreme Court clerk despite going to two of the finest law schools and having ringing recommendation, because she was a woman. She never gave up. Ten years later, she sent her first brief to the Supreme Court. She is the reason why the Supreme Court had struck down a state law based on gender discrimination for the first time. She was the second woman to ever be confirmed to the court. She is one of their most prominent members as she has served 27 years on the nation’s highest court. Throughout her legal career, she was an advocate for the advancement of gender equality and women’s rights, including woman’s right to reproductive health decisions. RBG’s legacy will live on forever as a fighter. Despite not even being considered for the Supreme Court clerk, she persevered and eventually became one of the members on the nation’s highest court. Despite struggling through five bouts of cancer: colon cancer in 1999, pancreatic cancer in 2009, lung cancer in 2018, and pancreatic cancer again in 2019, she still served on the court and lived to the old age of 87. RBG will live on forever as a feminist and an advocate for the people.